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This study was conducted to find out the bacteriology, incidence of anaerobic infection and drug sensitivity of anaerobes in cases of empyema. Thirty cases of thoracic empyema were taken for study. Pleural exudate obtained by thoracentesis was subjected to culture examination under careful laboratory conditions. Culture results of aspirated fluid showed isolation of anaerobes in 10 (33.3%). aerobes in seven (23.3%), mixed infection in six (20.0%), and sterile culture in seven (23.3%) cases. Thus, the incidence of anaerobic infection was 53.3%. Bacteroids fragilis was isolated in a maximum number of five cases. Antibacterial activity of antibiotics studied showed rifampicin having maximal effect followed by kanamycin. All bacteria were resistant to erythromycin.