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Immediate effects of Pranayama (Rechaka-Puraka) on ventilatory functions in patients with moderate airways obstruction were studied and were compared with the response to that of Salbutamol aerosol. There were 26 patients (Males 17 and Females 9). More than 15% change in response to Salbutamol aerosol in FEV1/FVC% was seen only in six males (Group I) whereas 11 males and all females showed less than 15% response (Group II). Though significant increase in FEV1/FVC% was seen after Pranayama in patients in Group I and only males in Group II, the degree of change was not comparable to that of salbutamol aerosol.