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Lung India Official publication of Indian Chest Society  
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 495-500

Nontuberculous mycobacteria: A report of eighteen cases from a tertiary care center in India

1 Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Radio-Diagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manish Soneja
Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_365_19

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Context: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous mycobacteria present in environment and generally affect patients with either structural lung disease or immunosuppression and commonly involve lungs, lymph node, or skin. Materials and Methods: Between July 2016 and February 2019, 18 cases of NTM were diagnosed and their relevant clinical, diagnostic, and treatment details were recorded after taking informed consent. Results: We report 18 cases of NTM involving lungs (n = 11), skin and soft tissue (n = 3), joint (n = 2), genitourinary (n = 1), and central nervous system (n = 1). History of immunosuppression was present in two patients, whereas history of some form of intervention was seen in six patients. Mycobacterium fortuitum group (n = 5) was the most commonly isolated organism, followed by Mycobacterium avium complex (n = 4), Mycobacterium abscessus (n = 3), Mycobacterium kansasii (n = 2), and Mycobacterium chelonae (n = 1). In two patients, M. chelonae and M. abscessus were isolated in succession. Of these 18 patients, clinical response was present in 15 of the patients. Diagnosis and treatment of NTM in resource limited settings is extremely challenging. Conclusion: Most of the patients with NTM are misdiagnosed and are treated as tuberculosis in India, sometimes with a multidrug resistance regimen, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. We present these cases to shed some light on the epidemiology of NTM in this part of India.

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