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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-February 2021
Volume 38 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-105

Online since Thursday, December 31, 2020

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Is there a role for inhaled ciclesonide in the treatment of COVID-19? Highly accessed article p. 1
Sundeep Santosh Salvi
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_473_20  PMID:33402630
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Survival predictors of interstitial lung disease in India: Follow-up of Interstitial Lung Disease India registry Highly accessed article p. 5
Sheetu Singh, Mohan Bairwa, Bridget F Collins, Bharat Bhushan Sharma, Jyotsana M Joshi, Deepak Talwar, Nishtha Singh, Khushboo Pilania, Parthasarathi Bhattacharya, Neeraj Gupta, Ravindran Chetambath, Aloke G Ghoshal, Surya Kant, Parvaiz A Koul, Raja Dhar, Rajesh Swarnakar, Virendra Singh, Ganesh Raghu
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_414_20  PMID:33402631
Background: Predictors of survival for interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the Indian population have not been studied. The primary objective of the study was to assess the Modified-Gender Age and Physiology (M-GAP) score to predict survival in patients with ILD seen in clinical practice. We also analyzed the role of demographic and radiological characteristics in predicting the survival of patients with ILD. Materials and Methods: In the ILD India registry, data were collected from 27 centers across 19 cities in India between March 2012 and June 2015. A single follow-up was conducted at 18 centers who agreed to participate in the follow-up in 2017. M-GAP score (range 0–5) was calculated with the following variables: age (≤60 years 0, 61–65 years 1, and >65 years 2), gender (female 0, male 1), and forced vital capacity% (>75% 0, 50%–75% 1, and >75% 2). A score of 0–3 and score of 4 and 5 were classified into Stage 1 and 2, respectively. Other predictors of survival, such as the history of tuberculosis, smoking, and the presence of honeycombing on computed tomography scan, were also evaluated. Results: Nine hundred and seven patients were contacted in 2017. Among them, 309 patients were lost to follow-up; 399 were alive and 199 had died. M-GAP was significantly associated with survival. Similarly, other predictors of survival were ability to perform spirometry (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.72), past history of tuberculosis (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.29), current or past history of smoking (HR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06–2.16), honeycombing (HR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.29–2.55), a diagnosis of connective tissue disease -ILD (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76), and sarcoidosis (HR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.08–0.77). Conclusion: In a subgroup of patients with newly diagnosed ILD enrolled in ILD India registry and who were available for follow-up, M-GAP score predicted survival. Honeycombing at the time of diagnosis, along with accurate history of smoking, and previous history of tuberculosis were useful indices for predicting survival.
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Co-existing obstructive sleep apnea among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Highly accessed article p. 12
Loganathan Nattusami, Vijay Hadda, Gopi C Khilnani, Karan Madan, Saurabh Mittal, Pawan Tiwari, Anant Mohan, Maroof Ahmad Khan, Randeep Guleria
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_169_20  PMID:33402632
Background and Objectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disease that is frequently associated with comorbidities. In this study, we assessed the co-existence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients with stable COPD. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included patients with stable COPD who were screened with Epworth's Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Those with ESS score of >10 were subjected to in-lab polysomnography (PSG). PSG was manually analyzed and reported. Patients with apnea–hypopnea index of >5/h were diagnosed as OSA. Results: This study included 301 patients (78.1% male, 76.4% smokers, age 59.6 ± 10 years) with stable COPD. ESS score of >10 was observed in 47 (15.6%) patients. Among patients with ESS score of >10, OSA was observed in 34 (72.3%) patients. The overall prevalence of OSA among patients with COPD was 10.9%. Patients with co-existing OSA were older and had thicker neck and higher body mass index (BMI) as compared to COPD alone. In addition, patients with associated OSA had worse health-related quality of life (QOL) as shown by higher St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (42.42 ± 7.22 vs. 25.22 ± 8.66;P < 0.001). Conclusions: Co-existing OSA is common among patients with COPD and has a significant adverse effect on the QOL. Among COPD patients, older age, thick neck, and high BMI may predict co-existing OSA and require PSG for the confirmation.
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Lung preservation in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of tracheobronchial tree: A case series p. 18
Sukhram Bishnoi, Harsh Vardhan Puri, Belal Bin Asaf, Mohan Venkatesh Pulle, Akhil Kumar, Arvind Kumar
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_511_20  PMID:33402633
Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a primary salivary gland tumor also arising from nonsalivary gland organs of the body such as submucosal glands of tracheobronchial tree. Surgical resection with negative margins is the treatment of choice. All efforts should be made to preserve as much lung parenchyma as possible, by various bronchoplastic procedures. We present our experience with mucoepidermoid tumors and review their management options including lung preservation techniques and outcome of surgery. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 14 patients who underwent surgery for MEC. Their demographic data; clinical presentation; and preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative details were recorded. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography of chest and bronchoscopy as part of workup for diagnosis and to assess the location, size, and extent of tumor; extraluminal component; and status of distal lung parenchyma. Results: There were eight male and six female patients. The median age at the time of surgery was 28.36 years (range 22–45 years). The procedures performed included right upper lobectomy and right pneumonectomy in one patient each, left main bronchus sleeve resection in six patients, left upper sleeve lobectomy in three patients, and carinal resection and reconstruction of neo carina in three patients. Twelve (85.7%) of our patients underwent lung-preserving surgery. The median hospital stay and chest tube removal duration was 4 and 3 days, respectively. The median tumor size was 1.91 cm (range 1–8 cm). The median follow-up was 24 months (ranging from 6 to 78 months). Conclusion: Radical surgery to achieve R “0” resection with aggressive emphasis on lung preservation is the mainstay of treatment of MEC. Greater awareness of these tumors is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis and to prevent delaying of potential complete resection of MEC.
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A survey of medical thoracoscopy practices in India p. 23
Karan Madan, Pawan Tiwari, Balamugesh Thankgakunam, Saurabh Mittal, Vijay Hadda, Anant Mohan, Randeep Guleria
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_295_20  PMID:33402634
Background: Medical thoracoscopy (MT) is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for a variety of pleural conditions. There is a lack of literature on prevalent practices of MT in India. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the study was to study the prevalent practices of MT in India. Materials and Methods: A structured online survey on various aspects of thoracoscopy was designed on the “Google Forms” web software. Results: One hundred and eight responses were received, of which 100 respondents performed MT. The majority were pulmonologists, and most had started performing thoracoscopy within the last 5 years. Rigid thoracoscope was the most commonly used instrument. The common indications of procedure included undiagnosed pleural effusion, talc pleurodesis, and adhesiolysis. Local anesthesia with conscious sedation was the preferred anesthetic modality. Midazolam, along with fentanyl, was the most widely used sedation combination. 2% lignocaine was the most commonly used concentration for local infiltrative anesthesia. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents reported having encountered any complication of thoracoscopy. Significant reported complications included empyema, incision/port-site infection, re-expansion pulmonary edema, and procedure-related mortality. Conclusion: MT is a rapidly evolving interventional pulmonology procedure in India. There is, however, a significant variation in practice and variable adherence to available international guidelines on thoracoscopy. Formal training programs within India and national guidelines for pleuroscopy considering the local resources are required to improve the safety and yield of this useful modality.
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Small-bore catheter is more than an alternative to the ordinary chest tube for pleural drainage p. 31
Abdel-Mohsen Mahmoud Hamad, Seham Ezzat Alfeky
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_44_20  PMID:33402635
Background: Pleural collection is a common medical problem. For decades, the chest tube of different designs was the commonly used toll for pleural drainage. Over the past few years, small-bore catheter (SBC) has gained more popularity. We present our experience of using SBCs for the drainage of pleural collection of different etiologies. Patients and Methods: A total of 398 small-bore pleural catheters were inserted in 369 patients with pleural collection during the period from January 2013 to October 2019. Data were collected regarding the efficacy of drainage, experienced chest pain, duration of drainage, and the occurrence of complications. Results: Malignant associated (59.24%) and parapneumonic (19.57%) effusions constituted the most common causes. The drainage was successful in 382/398 (95.98%) occasions; six cases had incomplete fluid evacuation that required decortications; five cases (1.26%) had nonexpendable lung. Catheter reinsertion was needed due to dislodgment in 2 (0.50%) cases and obstruction in 3 (0.75%) cases. Sixty-two cases (15.58%) experienced chest pain. No patient developed empyema or cellulites at the site of catheter insertion. The duration of drainage ranged from 2 to 7 days, with an average of 3.5 days. Conclusions: SBC is equivalent to conventional chest tube for the drainage of pleural collection. Moreover, it has the advantages of less associated pain, versatility of insertion site, and relative safety of the technique in some risky and difficult situations.
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Results in 110 consecutive cases p. 36
Harsh Vardhan Puri, Belal Bin Asaf, Mohan Venkatesh Pulle, Sukhram Bishnoi, Arvind Kumar
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_453_19  PMID:33402636
Background: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) results from the rupture of small blebs or bullae in a patient without any pre-existing lung disease. Last decade witnessed a paradigm shift in the surgical management of pneumothorax from open to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) method. In this study, we aim to report our single center experience of surgical management of PSP along with surgical outcomes in 110 consecutive cases of PSP. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 110 operated cases of PSP over 5 years. Demography, computed tomography findings, operative technique, endoscopic classification (Vanderschueren), surgical duration, intraoperative and postoperative complications, duration of Intercostal Drain (ICD), hospital stay, and recurrence in follow-up were recorded. Results: The average age of patients was 27.59 years (range 9–68 years). The average number of episodes before the presentation was 2 (range 1–5). The average number of loss of working days because of symptoms, conservative management, or long-term intercostal drainage was 13.33 days (range 5–60 days). As per intra-operative findings, patients were categorized as per Vanderschueren's classification and managed accordingly. Conversion rate was in 1.8% (n = 2). Mean time to removal of chest tubes was 4 days (2–12 days). Mean hospital stay was 3.83 days (2–9 days). There were no postoperative deaths. The mean follow-up was 25.05 months (6–60 months). Overall complication rate was 3.6% (n = 4) and recurrence happened in 2.7% (n = 3) cases. Conclusions: VATS is an efficient and safe treatment modality for PSP with low recurrence rates and high level of patient satisfaction.
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Percutaneous core needle biopsy in the diagnosis of lung lesions: An experience on 280 consecutive cases from a university hospital in southern India p. 41
Madhavi Parigi, Monalisa Hui, Shantveer G Uppin, Anu Kapoor, N Narendra Kumar, K Bhaskar, Bala Joseph Stalin, G Sadashivudu, GK Paramjyothi
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_326_19  PMID:33402637
Context: Percutaneous needle biopsy of lung (PCNBL) is advantageous over bronchoscopic biopsies to obtain adequate sample for peripheral lung lesions. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of image-guided PCNBL in the diagnosis of lung lesions and to classify lung carcinomas as per the recently proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification for small biopsies modified and adopted by the World Health Organization, 2015. Materials and Methods: A total of 280 image-guided PCNBL were analyzed. The radiological findings and routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) were analyzed in all the cases. Molecular testing was done depending on tissue diagnosis and availability. Results: Majority (81%) were diagnosed as malignant lesions, with adenocarcinoma (ADC) being the most common. More than 70% were diagnosed on H&E morphology alone, with thirty cases requiring IHC to categorize as ADC. Nearly 60% were categorized as squamous cell carcinoma on morphology alone and the rest required IHC. Though TTF1 showed higher sensitivity than napsin A, the latter is more specific. Both p63 and p40 were found to be highly sensitive for squamous cell carcinoma, but p40 was more specific than p63. Epidermal growth factor receptor could be evaluated on 94.4% of ADC samples, indicating good yield for molecular testing. Conclusion: PCNBL yields adequate sampling for tissue diagnosis and ancillary testing with minimal complications. The use of IHC markers reduces the number of non-small-cell not otherwise specified cases significantly.
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Study of respiratory viruses and their coinfection with bacterial and fungal pathogens in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases p. 53
Rahat Jahan, Baijayantimala Mishra, Bijayini Behera, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra, Ashok Kumar Praharaj
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_273_20  PMID:33402638
Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develop acute exacerbations (AE), with varying natural history. The exacerbation is triggered by infection, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The study on infectious aetiology of AECOPD is largely restricted to only viral or only bacterial aetiology. There are no studies from India that have investigated multiple viral, bacterial, and fungal associations from the same group of patients. This prospective study was conducted over 2 years to estimate the incidence and profile of viral infections in AECOPD patients, their coinfection with other bacterial and fungal agents, and association of the type and pattern of infective agent with the clinical severity. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four AECOPD cases were included in the study. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed from nasopharyngeal swab using Fast Track Diagnostics Respiratory Pathogens 21 Plus Kit. Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stain, Modified ZN, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount were performed for Mycobacteria, Nocardia, and fungal elements. Bacterial cultures and fungal cultures were done as per the standard techniques. Serum samples were tested for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumoniae immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The number of AECOPD events involving only viral infection, only bacterial infection, bacterial–viral coinfection, and no infection were 43 (58.1%), 32 (43.2%), 20 (27%), and 19 (25.7%), respectively. Influenza A virus was the most common virus (22/43, 51%) identified. In 26 patients, monoviral infections were found, and in 17 patients, polyviral infections were identified, the most common pattern being influenza A and B virus, followed by human rhinovirus and human parainfluenza. The most common bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9/32,28%) followed by Acinetobacter baumanii and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7/32, 21%). Among the viral–bacterial coinfection, human coronavirus NL63 infection was always associated with a bacterial infection. Conclusion: This information on the various viral and bacterial etiologies of respiratory infections in AECOPD in this part of India will improve the understanding of the management of AECOPD using a timely institution of antivirals and reduce the overuse of antibiotics and the implementation of routine influenza vaccination.
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Barriers to pulmonary rehabilitation – A narrative review and perspectives from a few stakeholders p. 59
Anulucia Augustine, Anup Bhat, K Vaishali, Rahul Magazine
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_116_20  PMID:33402639
Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is an essential and comprehensive intervention recommended in the management of people with chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). Scientific evidence suggests significant health benefits with respect to repeated hospital admissions, exercise tolerance and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). However, the uptake and completion of PR programs are globally low. In order to understand the factors contributing to underutilization of PR, it is important to review and recognize the barriers to PR program. A literature search was conducted on Medline (PubMed) database. After reviewing the title and abstracts, full text articles were scrutinized for their relevance. Twenty-two studies involving factors affecting the uptake, participation and completion of PR program were included in this review. Reported barriers to PR were healthcare system, healthcare professional and patient related factors. Primary factors related to healthcare system and healthcare professionals were fewer PR centers, accessibility inconvenience, lack of awareness of PR program, low knowledge of referral process and lack of interdisciplinary teamwork. Difficulties faced by patients to take up and/or to complete PR programs were lack of transportation, co-morbidities, lack of perceived benefits, socio-economic status and lack of funding facilities. Identified and reported barriers resulted into discontinuity between knowledge of health benefits and utilization of PR service for patients with CRDs. Addressing the barriers would accelerate the healthcare professionals' referral and patients to avail the health benefits of rehabilitation service.
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A systematic review of utility of urine lipoarabinomannan in detecting tuberculosis among HIV-positive tuberculosis suspects Highly accessed article p. 64
Chakrapani Chatla, Neetu Mishra, Malathi Jojula, Rajesham Adepu, Mallikarjun Puttala
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_574_19  PMID:33402640
Sputum smear microscopy (SSM), though regarded as an inexpensive and popular method for detecting tuberculosis (TB), lacks adequate sensitivity, specifically in adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a promising diagnostic tool among PLHIV with CD4 cell count < 200 cells/μl. We attempted to review all the studies undertaken in identifying the utility of urine LAM in diagnosing TB, especially among PLHIV. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and MEDLINE databases for studies reporting diagnostic utility of urine LAM status in PLHIV, published in the last 20 years till December 2019. The keywords used for searching were “Tuberculosis,” “HIV/AIDS,” “Diagnosis,” “Screening” “Lipoarabinomannan,” and “Urine.” Our search resulted in 137 shortlisted citations, of which 67 related manuscripts were identified for detailed study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 37 studies were reviewed in detail. Average sample size of these studies was 464 (range = 81–2528; SD = 427). Crude average sensitivity of urine LAM in culture-confirmed TB cases was 44.1% (range = 8.3–93) while that of SSM was 38.6% (range = 14–65). However, sensitivity of urine LAM + SSM was 60.4% (range = 38.3–92.7), demonstrating the utility of SSM + urine LAM combination for detecting TB. Specificity was similar between urine LAM and SSM with 92.7% (range = 76–100) and 97.9% (range = 93.9–100), respectively. Majority of the studies demonstrated higher sensitivity of urine LAM in those with lesser the CD4 count, with immunocompromised and with debilitation who cannot produce self-expectorated sputum. We conclude that urine LAM is a potential diagnostic test in the algorithms involving immunocompromised, debilitated patients and specifically in PLHIV whose CD4 count is ≤100 cells/μl.
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Bilateral meandering pulmonary vein complex and unusual associated cardiovascular anomalies and shunt: Extremely rare entity p. 74
Dev Arwikar, Ameya Baxi, Carlos Restrepo, Ambarish Bhat, Prabhakar Rajiah, Sachin S Saboo
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_47_20  PMID:33402641
Meandering pulmonary vein (MPV) is a rare entity that can be associated with an additional cardiac and pulmonary venous variations, including left-to-right shunts. Clinicians should consider further workup with dedicated cardiac imaging to evaluate for associated cardiovascular abnormalities after an abnormal pulmonary vein draining is initially identified on routine computed tomography or echocardiogram. Pulmonary venous variations in MPV represent a spectrum of disorders, and no consistent nomenclature has been established.
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Conservative treatment of postintubation tracheal laceration with pneumomediastinum, bilateral pneumothorax, and massive subcutaneous emphysema p. 77
Marijan Romic, Tomislav Becejac, Dario Grbavac, Renata Romic, Ivan Romic
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_322_20  PMID:33402642
Postintubation tracheal laceration (PITL) is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Patients typically present with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum, whereas concomitant pneumothorax is rarely reported. A conservative treatment is indicated in selected respiratory stable patients with small lacerations. Herein, we reported an unusual case of PITL with bilateral pneumothorax that was treated with chest tube drainage and conservative measures in the intensive care unit. The key success of the PITL management is early recognition of signs and symptoms and an adequate selection of management approaches.
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Accidental breakage of needle tip during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: A case report and review of literature p. 80
Nikhil Bante, Abhijeet Singh, Ayush Gupta, Anshul Mittal, Jagdish Chander Suri
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_537_19  PMID:33402643
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is commonly recommended for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy with malignant and nonmalignant etiology. EBUS-TBNA has been preferred over mediastinoscopy because of several advantages such as comparable diagnostic accuracy, safety, cost-effectiveness, and less invasiveness. Hemorrhage, mediastinitis, pneumonia, mediastinal abscess, empyema, lung abscess, pericarditis, and pneumothorax have been reported as major complications of EBUS-TBNA. Equipment malfunction has been observed mostly in the form of breakage of EBUS scope parts such as working channel, optical fibers, and ultrasound probe. Needle malfunction either involving assembly leading to inability to retract the needle within the sheath or accidental breakage of the needle tip has also been reported but the evidence is still limited. We encountered an accidental breakage of needle tip while performing EBUS-TBNA procedure in a 58-year-old male having subcarinal lymphadenopathy suspected to have lung cancer. We were able to successfully retrieve the broken fragment bronchoscopically without any complications.
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An elderly female with dyspnea and skin lesion p. 84
Tarun Krishna Boppana, Saurabh Mittal, Karan Madan, Anant Mohan
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_534_19  PMID:33402644
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Congenital isolated unilateral hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery: A rare incidental anomaly in an elderly female p. 86
Pankaj Jariwala, Suresh Giragani, Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_103_20  PMID:33402645
Congenital isolated unilateral hypoplasia of the pulmonary artery (CIUPAH) can have late presentation in the adulthood, mostly diagnosed incidentally, as in our case. They may have symptoms such as exertional dyspnea, recurrent lung infections, and hemoptysis. Although the surgical management is a definitive treatment modality, it depends on the presence of reversible pulmonary hypertension and size of the pulmonary arteries; interventional and medical management can be attempted as a palliative therapy in cases where definitive surgical management is not feasible. We have discussed a rare case of isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia which is a congenital anomaly of the lung vasculature without associated congenital heart disease manifested in adulthood.
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Endovascular management of spontaneous inferior phrenic artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as massive hemothorax p. 88
Vivek Agarwal, Ujjwal Gorsi, Tarvinder Singh, M Singh Sandhu
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_46_20  PMID:33402646
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Inflammatory pseudotumor of the lung with complete resolution p. 90
Neha Nigam, Zia Hashim, Zafar Neyaz, Mansi Gupta, Alok Nath
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_71_20  PMID:33402647
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Massive gastric distension following tracheobronchial Y-shaped self-expanding metallic stent placement for large tracheoesophageal fistula p. 92
Saurabh Mittal, Karan Madan, Anant Mohan, Pawan Tiwari
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_36_20  PMID:33402648
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Malignant gastrotracheal fistula treated by self-expandable metallic stent: First case report from India p. 93
Manoj Kumar Goel
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_136_20  PMID:33402649
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Scimitar syndrome a rare variant of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection presenting as recurrent hemoptysis p. 95
Manoj Kumar Pandey, Jyoti Bajpai, Hemant Kumar, Poornima Mishra
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_79_20  PMID:33402650
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Effective use of telemedicine in Mumbai with a cohort of extensively drug-resistant “XDR” tuberculosis patients on bedaquiline during COVID-19 pandemic p. 98
Zarir F Udwadia, Samridhi Sharma, Jai B Mullerpattan, Ishita Gajjar, Lancelot Pinto
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_464_20  PMID:33402651
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Scope-in-scope versus conventional rigid bronchoscope design: Clinical efficacy and safety p. 99
Abhishek Kumar, Karan Madan, Vijay Hadda, Anant Mohan, Rakesh Garg
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_493_20  PMID:33402652
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Characteristics and outcomes of endobronchial tuberculosis therapy p. 101
Wahju Aniwidyaningsih, Mia Elhidsi, Adistya Sari, Erlina Burhan
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_132_20  PMID:33402653
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Barrier enclosure device: More scientific evidence is required p. 104
Balamugesh Thangakunam, Devasahayam J Christopher
DOI:10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_722_20  PMID:33402654
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Retraction: A review of convalescent plasma transfusion in COVID-19: Old wine reserved for special occasions p. 105

DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.306029  PMID:33402655
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